Posts Tagged ‘ocean acidification’

New Papers at SPPI

Monday, August 17th, 2015

Source:  SPPI

Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Corals (Laboratory Studies)

Most of the ocean acidification research conducted to date has focused solely on the biological impacts of declining seawater pH. Fewer studies have investigated the interactive effects of ocean acidification and temperature. This summary examines what has been learned in several of such studies for coral reefs, as reported in various laboratory-based studies on the topic. Contrary to what is widely assumed and reported, the studies reviewed here collectively reveal that many corals will remain unaffected by rising temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Furthermore, in contrast to projections, some will likely experience growth and performance benefits.

Antarctic Sea Ice Trends

Noting that Antarctic sea ice may show high sensitivity to any anthropogenic-induced increase in temperature, Watkins and Simmonds (2000)1 analyzed temporal trends in different measures of the sea ice that surrounds Antarctica, using Special Sensor Microwave Imager data obtained from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program for the nine-year period December 1987-December 1996, in search of the suspected signal. But contrary to what one would expect on the basis of climate model simulations, and especially in light of what climate alarmists of the day described as the unprecedented warming of the past quarter-century, the two scientists observed statistically significant increases in both sea ice area and extent; and when they combined their results with those of the preceding nine-year period (1978-1987), both parameters continued to show increases over that expanded time period. In addition, they found that the 1990s also experienced increases in the length of the sea-ice season.

Historic Trends in Global Sea Level

Periodically, individual scientists and groups of scientists analyze global sets of sea level data to see if there is any indication of a dramatic increase in the mean rate-of-rise of the global ocean surface in response to the supposedly unprecedented warming of the planet over the course of the 20th century and the initial phase of the 21st century, which latter phenomenon the world’s climate alarmists claim should be accelerating global sea level rise and leading to catastrophic coastal flooding throughout the world. Hence, we here provide a brief summary of the findings of several such studies that we have reviewed over the past several years.

 

Robert Ferguson, President

Science and Public Policy Institute

bferguson@sppinstitute.org

202-288-5699

 

 

 

Put the acid on Great Barrier Reef doomsayers

Monday, April 13th, 2015

Source: The Australiancoral-reef-1

by PATRICK MOORE

There is nothing more symbolic of the natural beauty of Australia than the Great Barrier Reef.

This makes it a powerful emotional tool to strike fear into the hearts of citizens. The “ocean acidification” hypothesis, that corals and shellfish will die due to higher levels of carbon dioxide dissolved in the sea, is often used to stoke those fears.

Here’s why I don’t believe there is a shred of evidence to support these claims.

When the slight global warming that occurred between 1970 and 2000 came to a virtual standstill, the doomsayers adopted ­“climate change”, which apparently means all extreme weather events are caused by human emissions of CO2.

Cold, hot, wet, dry, wind, snow and large hailstones are attributed to humanity’s profligate use of fossil fuels. But the pause in global warming kept on and became embarrassing around 2005. (more…)

Monday, April 13th, 2015

Source: SPPIidso3

Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Crustaceans

As the air’s CO2 content rises in response to ever-increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and as more and more carbon dioxide therefore dissolves in the surface waters of the world’s oceans, theoretical reasoning suggests the pH values of the planet’s oceanic waters should be gradually dropping. The IPCC and others postulate that this chain of events, commonly referred to as ocean acidification, will cause great harm — and possibly death — to marine life in the decades and centuries to come. However, as ever more pertinent evidence accumulates, a much more optimistic viewpoint is emerging. Such optimism is the focus of this summary examining the effects of ocean acidification on crustaceans.

Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Bivalves

As the air’s CO2 content rises in response to ever-increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and as more and more carbon dioxide therefore dissolves in the surface waters of the world’s oceans, theoretical reasoning suggests the pH values of the planet’s oceanic waters should be gradually dropping. The IPCC and others postulate that this chain of events, commonly referred to as ocean acidification, will cause great harm — and possibly death — to marine life in the decades and centuries to come. However, as ever more pertinent evidence accumulates, a much more optimistic viewpoint is emerging. Such optimism is the focus of this summary examining the effects of ocean acidification on bivalves. (more…)

What if Obama’s Climate Change Policies are Based on pHraud?

Tuesday, January 20th, 2015

Source: Heartland

By Marita Noon

“Ocean acidification” (OA) is claimed to be a phenomenon that will destroy ocean life—all due to mankind’s use of fossil fuels. The claim of OA is a critical scientific foundation to the full spectrum of climate change assertions.

Dr. Richard A. Feely is a senior scientist with the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL)—part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). His four-page report: Carbon Dioxide and Our Ocean Legacy, offered on the NOAA website, contains a chart titled “Historical & Projected pH & Dissolved Co2,” which shows a decline in seawater pH (making it more acidic) that appears to coincide with increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. (more…)

Impacts of Future pH Reductions on the Early Life of Reef Corals

Friday, October 10th, 2014

Source: CO2 Science coral-reef-1

Paper Reviewed
Chua, C.-M., Leggat, W., Moya, A. and Baird, A.H. 2013. Near-future reductions in pH will have no consistent ecological effects on the early life-history stages of reef corals. Marine Ecology Progress Series 486: 143-151.

In the words of Chua et al. (2013), “until recently, research into the consequences of oceanic uptake of CO2 for corals focused on its effect on physiological processes, in particular, calcification.” However, they note that “events early in the life history of corals are also likely to be vulnerable to changes in ocean chemistry caused by increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO2.” Focusing on these early life history events, Chua et al. thus set out to test “the effect of reduced pH on embryonic development, larval survivorship and metamorphosis of 3 common scleractinian corals from the Great Barrier Reef,” employing “4 treatment levels of pH, corresponding to the current level of ocean pH and 3 values projected to occur later this century.” (more…)

June 2014 Archive of Scientific Literature Reviews

Tuesday, July 15th, 2014

Source:  NIPCC
redwood trees

http://www.nipccreport.org/issues/2014/jun.html

Old Trees: The Bigger They Are, The More Carbon They Sequester (3 Jun 2014)
New data overturn an old concept, revealing that “rapid growth in giant trees is the global norm” and “it appears to hold regardless of competitive environment”… Read More (more…)

New Material Posted on the NIPCC Web site

Friday, January 3rd, 2014

Source:  NIPCC

Cinnamon Anemonefish

Cinnamon Anemonefish

How CO2 Impacts Reproduction Among Cinnamon Anemonefish (24 Dec 2013)
In contrast to alarmist predictions, results of this study showed that reproductive output in fish living in high CO2 (1032 µatm) was 82% higher than that in a control group (430 µatm) and 50% higher than that in a moderately high group (584 µatm). And the authors of the study make a point of noting that “despite the increase in reproductive activity, there was no difference in adult body condition among the three treatment groups,” and “there was no significant difference in hatchling length between the treatment groups”… Read More

Boreal Wildfires in a Warming World (24 Dec 2013)
Although climate alarmists have long opined that boreal wildfires will increase in response to global warming, the results of this study suggest that both the frequency and ferocity of boreal wildfires in a warming world could well decline… Read More (more…)

Juvenile Barnacles in a Significantly Warmed and Acidified Ocean

Friday, December 20th, 2013

Source:  CO2 Science barnicles

Reference
Pansch, C., Nasrolahi, A., Appelhans, Y.S. and Wahl, M. 2013. Tolerance of juvenile barnacles (Amphibalanus improvisus) to warming and elevated pCO2Marine Biology 160: 2023-2035.

Background
The authors say that Kiel Fjord in the western Baltic Sea “is characterized by strong fluctuations in water pCO2 and pH,” and that annual mean pCO2 values of about 700 µatm can be measured there today, “with occasional pCO2 peaks of up to ~2,300 µatm (Thomsen et al., 2010).” And they therefore wondered how juvenile barnacles (Amphibalanus improvisus) would fare there in the future, as the air’s CO2 content continues to rise and if temperatures rise along with it. (more…)

Lord Monckton's response to Jeffrey Bada

Monday, November 18th, 2013

Source:  SPPI  Monckton co2 cost effective

Subject: RE: Lord Monckton‘s response to Jeffrey Bada
Date: Sun, 17 Nov 2013 23:43:39 +0000

****************

From: monckton@mail.com
Subject: RE: Ferenc Miskolzci

Dear Professor Bada, – You reply to my earlier email as follows (with some ad-hominem instances of the ignoratio elenchi fallacy removed):

“OK so you accept global warming but say from an economic standpoint we would destroy our societies by trying to mend our ways.  What about all the other creatures on the Earth?  Do they have any say in your economic based claims we should to do nothing?  What about ocean acidification from increasing CO2 and its affects on photosynthetic organisms?”

Let me deal with your three points seriatim. (more…)

Idso’s Rebuttal to Scott Doney’s Senate Testimony on “Ocean Acidification”

Sunday, July 21st, 2013

Source: Climate Etc. acid_test

by Judith Curry

Scott Doney’s testimony

Excerpts from Doney’s recent congressional testimony [link]

Rebuttal 

Craig Idso has written comprehensive rebuttal to the NRDC film “Acid Test: The Global Challenge of Ocean Acidification.” [link]

So what’s the story here? Are coral reefs really in their last decades of existence? Will the shells of other calcifying marine life also dissolve away during our lifetimes? The NRDC film certainly makes it appear that such is the case; but a little scientific sleuthing reveals nothing of substance in this regard. In fact, even a cursory review of the peer-reviewed scientific literature reveals that an equally strong case – if not a more persuasive one – can be made for the proposition that the ongoing rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration will actually prove a boon to calcifying marine life. Sadly, however, the NRDC chose to present an extreme one-sided, propagandized view of ocean acidification; and in this critique we present the part of the story that they clearly don’t want you to know.

[25 pages of text, 13 pages of references]

From the Conclusions: (more…)

Misguided PBS spreads acid ocean alarm

Thursday, December 20th, 2012

Source:  Washington Times

http://www.amazon.com/CO2-Global-Warming-Coral-Reefs/dp/0971484589/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1356024440&sr=8-1&keywords=craig+idso

by Steve Gorham

On December 5, the PBS News Hour showed a segment titled “Endangered Coral Reefs Die as Ocean Temperatures Rise and Water Turns Acidic,” with Hari Sreenivasan reporting. The story discussed the recent loss of Florida coral reefs and the possible impact on recreation and tourism if reef degradation continues. But PBS wrongly told viewers that reef degradation was due to warmer ocean temperatures and “ocean acidification,” both allegedly caused by human carbon dioxide emissions. Sreenivasan concluded with, “Time that maybe is running out for coral reefs in Florida and elsewhere.”

Scientists, environmental groups, and the United Nations promote the fear of ocean acidification. According to claims, man-made emissions of carbon dioxide are absorbed by the oceans and converted into carbonic acid, thereby changing the chemical balance of the oceans. The basic concept of acidification is correct, but hugely exaggerated. (more…)

Occasionally-Slowed Organismal Development in Low-pH Seawater

Saturday, September 1st, 2012

Source:  CO2 Science

http://www.european-marine-life.org/30/paracentrotus-lividus.php

In the intriguing report of their study of the early development of the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, Martin et al. (2011) write that “although embryos and larvae are well prepared for environmental changes (Hamdoun and Epel, 2007), it is widely accepted that early life-history stages are more sensitive than adults to ocean acidification.” However, they say that this too-rapidly-accepted belief has typically been derived from comparisons made between organisms raised in seawater of current ambient pH and CO2-lowered pH “at one time point and may be partially explained by a delay in the development classically observed under low pH conditions,” citing the work of Portner et al. (2010). (more…)

How Ocean Acidification and Warming Impact Predator-Prey Relationships of Calcifying Organisms

Saturday, September 1st, 2012

Source:  CO2 Science

Reference
Landes, A. and Zimmer, M. 2012. Acidification and warming affect both a calcifying predator and prey, but not their interaction. Marine Ecology Progress Series 450: 1-10.

Background
The authors write that “both ocean warming and acidification have been demonstrated to affect the growth, performance and reproductive success of calcifying invertebrates.” However, they say that “relatively little is known regarding how such environmental change may affect interspecific interactions.” (more…)

Acidification Effects on Deep-Sea Corals and Other Megabenthos

Tuesday, August 21st, 2012

Source:  CO2 Science

http://tbsecosystemsold.wikispaces.com/Coral+Reefs

Reference
Thresher, R.E., Tilbrook, B., Fallon, S., Wilson, N.C. and Adkins, J. 2011. Effects of chronic low carbonate saturation levels on the distribution, growth and skeletal chemistry of deep-sea corals and other seamount megabenthos. Marine Ecology Progress Series 442: 87-99.

Background
The authors write that “ocean acidification has been predicted to reduce the ability of marine organisms to produce carbonate skeletons, threatening their long-term viability and severely impacting marine ecosystems,” noting in this regard that “corals, as ecosystem engineers, have been identified as particularly vulnerable.” However, they state that “these predictions are based primarily on modeling studies and short-term laboratory exposure to low-carbonate conditions.” And they therefore logically add that “their relevance to long-term exposure in the field and the potential for ecological or evolutionary adjustment are uncertain.” (more…)

Effects of Low pH on Early Life Stages of Atlantic Herring

Monday, August 20th, 2012

Source:  CCR

Reference
Franke, A. and Clemmesen, C. 2011. Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Biogeosciences 8: 3697-3707.

According to Franke and Clemmesen (2011), “since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages (Koester et al., 2003; Houde, 2008), knowledge of the factors influencing growth and survival rates of these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.” And they add, in this regard, that “early life history stages even of the more tolerant taxa are assumed to be most susceptible to ocean acidification (Raven et al., 2005; Melzner et al., 2009).” But is this latter assumption correct? (more…)