Posts Tagged ‘ocean acidification’

Impacts of Future pH Reductions on the Early Life of Reef Corals

Friday, October 10th, 2014

Source: CO2 Science coral-reef-1

Paper Reviewed
Chua, C.-M., Leggat, W., Moya, A. and Baird, A.H. 2013. Near-future reductions in pH will have no consistent ecological effects on the early life-history stages of reef corals. Marine Ecology Progress Series 486: 143-151.

In the words of Chua et al. (2013), “until recently, research into the consequences of oceanic uptake of CO2 for corals focused on its effect on physiological processes, in particular, calcification.” However, they note that “events early in the life history of corals are also likely to be vulnerable to changes in ocean chemistry caused by increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO2.” Focusing on these early life history events, Chua et al. thus set out to test “the effect of reduced pH on embryonic development, larval survivorship and metamorphosis of 3 common scleractinian corals from the Great Barrier Reef,” employing “4 treatment levels of pH, corresponding to the current level of ocean pH and 3 values projected to occur later this century.” (more…)

June 2014 Archive of Scientific Literature Reviews

Tuesday, July 15th, 2014

Source:  NIPCC
redwood trees

http://www.nipccreport.org/issues/2014/jun.html

Old Trees: The Bigger They Are, The More Carbon They Sequester (3 Jun 2014)
New data overturn an old concept, revealing that “rapid growth in giant trees is the global norm” and “it appears to hold regardless of competitive environment”… Read More (more…)

New Material Posted on the NIPCC Web site

Friday, January 3rd, 2014

Source:  NIPCC

Cinnamon Anemonefish

Cinnamon Anemonefish

How CO2 Impacts Reproduction Among Cinnamon Anemonefish (24 Dec 2013)
In contrast to alarmist predictions, results of this study showed that reproductive output in fish living in high CO2 (1032 µatm) was 82% higher than that in a control group (430 µatm) and 50% higher than that in a moderately high group (584 µatm). And the authors of the study make a point of noting that “despite the increase in reproductive activity, there was no difference in adult body condition among the three treatment groups,” and “there was no significant difference in hatchling length between the treatment groups”… Read More

Boreal Wildfires in a Warming World (24 Dec 2013)
Although climate alarmists have long opined that boreal wildfires will increase in response to global warming, the results of this study suggest that both the frequency and ferocity of boreal wildfires in a warming world could well decline… Read More (more…)

Juvenile Barnacles in a Significantly Warmed and Acidified Ocean

Friday, December 20th, 2013

Source:  CO2 Science barnicles

Reference
Pansch, C., Nasrolahi, A., Appelhans, Y.S. and Wahl, M. 2013. Tolerance of juvenile barnacles (Amphibalanus improvisus) to warming and elevated pCO2Marine Biology 160: 2023-2035.

Background
The authors say that Kiel Fjord in the western Baltic Sea “is characterized by strong fluctuations in water pCO2 and pH,” and that annual mean pCO2 values of about 700 µatm can be measured there today, “with occasional pCO2 peaks of up to ~2,300 µatm (Thomsen et al., 2010).” And they therefore wondered how juvenile barnacles (Amphibalanus improvisus) would fare there in the future, as the air’s CO2 content continues to rise and if temperatures rise along with it. (more…)

Lord Monckton’s response to Jeffrey Bada

Monday, November 18th, 2013

Source:  SPPI  Monckton co2 cost effective

Subject: RE: Lord Monckton‘s response to Jeffrey Bada
Date: Sun, 17 Nov 2013 23:43:39 +0000

****************

From: monckton@mail.com
Subject: RE: Ferenc Miskolzci

Dear Professor Bada, – You reply to my earlier email as follows (with some ad-hominem instances of the ignoratio elenchi fallacy removed):

“OK so you accept global warming but say from an economic standpoint we would destroy our societies by trying to mend our ways.  What about all the other creatures on the Earth?  Do they have any say in your economic based claims we should to do nothing?  What about ocean acidification from increasing CO2 and its affects on photosynthetic organisms?”

Let me deal with your three points seriatim. (more…)

Idso’s Rebuttal to Scott Doney’s Senate Testimony on “Ocean Acidification”

Sunday, July 21st, 2013

Source: Climate Etc. acid_test

by Judith Curry

Scott Doney’s testimony

Excerpts from Doney’s recent congressional testimony [link]

Rebuttal 

Craig Idso has written comprehensive rebuttal to the NRDC film “Acid Test: The Global Challenge of Ocean Acidification.” [link]

So what’s the story here? Are coral reefs really in their last decades of existence? Will the shells of other calcifying marine life also dissolve away during our lifetimes? The NRDC film certainly makes it appear that such is the case; but a little scientific sleuthing reveals nothing of substance in this regard. In fact, even a cursory review of the peer-reviewed scientific literature reveals that an equally strong case – if not a more persuasive one – can be made for the proposition that the ongoing rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration will actually prove a boon to calcifying marine life. Sadly, however, the NRDC chose to present an extreme one-sided, propagandized view of ocean acidification; and in this critique we present the part of the story that they clearly don’t want you to know.

[25 pages of text, 13 pages of references]

From the Conclusions: (more…)

Misguided PBS spreads acid ocean alarm

Thursday, December 20th, 2012

Source:  Washington Times

http://www.amazon.com/CO2-Global-Warming-Coral-Reefs/dp/0971484589/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1356024440&sr=8-1&keywords=craig+idso

by Steve Gorham

On December 5, the PBS News Hour showed a segment titled “Endangered Coral Reefs Die as Ocean Temperatures Rise and Water Turns Acidic,” with Hari Sreenivasan reporting. The story discussed the recent loss of Florida coral reefs and the possible impact on recreation and tourism if reef degradation continues. But PBS wrongly told viewers that reef degradation was due to warmer ocean temperatures and “ocean acidification,” both allegedly caused by human carbon dioxide emissions. Sreenivasan concluded with, “Time that maybe is running out for coral reefs in Florida and elsewhere.”

Scientists, environmental groups, and the United Nations promote the fear of ocean acidification. According to claims, man-made emissions of carbon dioxide are absorbed by the oceans and converted into carbonic acid, thereby changing the chemical balance of the oceans. The basic concept of acidification is correct, but hugely exaggerated. (more…)

Occasionally-Slowed Organismal Development in Low-pH Seawater

Saturday, September 1st, 2012

Source:  CO2 Science

http://www.european-marine-life.org/30/paracentrotus-lividus.php

In the intriguing report of their study of the early development of the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, Martin et al. (2011) write that “although embryos and larvae are well prepared for environmental changes (Hamdoun and Epel, 2007), it is widely accepted that early life-history stages are more sensitive than adults to ocean acidification.” However, they say that this too-rapidly-accepted belief has typically been derived from comparisons made between organisms raised in seawater of current ambient pH and CO2-lowered pH “at one time point and may be partially explained by a delay in the development classically observed under low pH conditions,” citing the work of Portner et al. (2010). (more…)

How Ocean Acidification and Warming Impact Predator-Prey Relationships of Calcifying Organisms

Saturday, September 1st, 2012

Source:  CO2 Science

Reference
Landes, A. and Zimmer, M. 2012. Acidification and warming affect both a calcifying predator and prey, but not their interaction. Marine Ecology Progress Series 450: 1-10.

Background
The authors write that “both ocean warming and acidification have been demonstrated to affect the growth, performance and reproductive success of calcifying invertebrates.” However, they say that “relatively little is known regarding how such environmental change may affect interspecific interactions.” (more…)

Acidification Effects on Deep-Sea Corals and Other Megabenthos

Tuesday, August 21st, 2012

Source:  CO2 Science

http://tbsecosystemsold.wikispaces.com/Coral+Reefs

Reference
Thresher, R.E., Tilbrook, B., Fallon, S., Wilson, N.C. and Adkins, J. 2011. Effects of chronic low carbonate saturation levels on the distribution, growth and skeletal chemistry of deep-sea corals and other seamount megabenthos. Marine Ecology Progress Series 442: 87-99.

Background
The authors write that “ocean acidification has been predicted to reduce the ability of marine organisms to produce carbonate skeletons, threatening their long-term viability and severely impacting marine ecosystems,” noting in this regard that “corals, as ecosystem engineers, have been identified as particularly vulnerable.” However, they state that “these predictions are based primarily on modeling studies and short-term laboratory exposure to low-carbonate conditions.” And they therefore logically add that “their relevance to long-term exposure in the field and the potential for ecological or evolutionary adjustment are uncertain.” (more…)

Effects of Low pH on Early Life Stages of Atlantic Herring

Monday, August 20th, 2012

Source:  CCR

Reference
Franke, A. and Clemmesen, C. 2011. Effect of ocean acidification on early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus L.). Biogeosciences 8: 3697-3707.

According to Franke and Clemmesen (2011), “since the recruitment of fish seems to be determined during the early life stages (Koester et al., 2003; Houde, 2008), knowledge of the factors influencing growth and survival rates of these stages are of great importance in fisheries science.” And they add, in this regard, that “early life history stages even of the more tolerant taxa are assumed to be most susceptible to ocean acidification (Raven et al., 2005; Melzner et al., 2009).” But is this latter assumption correct? (more…)

Acidified Seawater: Does It Always Depress Calcification?

Wednesday, June 27th, 2012

Source:  CCR

Reference
Findlay, H.S., Wood, H.L., Kendall, M.A., Spicer, J.I., Twitchett, R.J. and Widdicombe, S. 2011. Comparing the impact of high CO2 on calcium carbonate structures in different marine organisms. Marine Biology Research 7: 565-575.

In introducing their study, Findlay et al. (2011) write that “calcifying marine organisms such as molluscs and foraminifera, crustaceans, echinoderms, corals and coccolithophores are predicted to be most vulnerable to decreasing oceanic pH (ocean acidification).” They also, however, say there is a possibility for “increased or maintained calcification under high carbon dioxide conditions,” and they go on to experimentally demonstrate the reality of this phenomenon in different types of calcifying marine animals. More specifically, working with five different calcifying organisms – two gastropods (the limpet Patella vulgata and the periwinkle Littorina littorea), a bivalve mussel (Mytilus edulis), one crustacean (the cirripede Semibalanus balanoides) and one echinoderm (the brittlestar Amphiura filiformis) – Findlay et al. say they “measured either the calcium (Ca2+) concentration in the calcified structures or shell morphological parameters as a proxy for a net change in calcium carbonate in live individuals exposed to lowered pH,” where the lower pH of the seawater employed was created by the bubbling of CO2into header tanks. So what did they find? (more…)

What is the Best Frame of Reference for Evaluating the Biological Consequences of Ocean Acidification?

Tuesday, June 19th, 2012

http://www.weforanimals.com/free-pictures/sea/sea-1.htm

Source:  CCR

Reference
Stumpp, M., Wren, J., Melzner, F., Thorndyke, M.C. and Dupont, S.T. 2011a. CO2 induced seawater acidification impacts sea urchin larval development I: Elevated metabolic rates decrease scope for growth and induce developmental delay. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A 160: 331-340.

Stumpp et al. (2011a) evaluated the impacts of elevated seawater pCO2 (1264 ppm vs. 375 ppm) on the early development of, and the larval metabolic and feeding rates of, a model marine organism: Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, commonly known as the purple sea urchin. This was done via a protocol where growth and development were assessed daily, for a period of three weeks, in terms of total body length, body rod length, postoral rod length and posterolateral rod length, as well as mortality and feeding and metabolic rates. So what did their research show? (more…)

The Impact of Ocean Acidification and Warming on a Calcifying Predator-Prey Relationship

Friday, June 15th, 2012

Source:  CCR

Reference
Landes, A. and Zimmer, M. 2012. Acidification and warming affect both a calcifying predator and prey, but not their interaction. Marine Ecology Progress Series 450: 1-10.

According to Landes and Zimmer (2012), “both ocean warming and acidification have been demonstrated to affect the growth, performance and reproductive success of calcifying invertebrates.” However, they say that “relatively little is known regarding how such environmental change may affect interspecific interactions.” (more…)

Another Ocean “Acidification” Scare

Thursday, January 26th, 2012

Source: NIPCC

Reference
Schram, J.B., McClintock, J.B., Angus, R.A and Lawrence, J.M. 2011. Regenerative capacity and biochemical composition of the sea star Luidia clathrata (Say) (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) under conditions of near-future ocean acidification. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 407: 266-274

According to Schram et al. (2011), “echinoderms produce their skeletal components from magnesium-rich calcite, a form of calcite that is even more vulnerable to ocean acidification than aragonite (Andersson et al., 2008; Gayathri et al., 2007),” and, therefore, they say that “an understanding of the prospective impacts of ocean acidification on internal skeletal structures of echinoderms is important, as the presence of an internal skeletal structure is unique in comparison to the majority of invertebrates studied to date in ocean acidification research.” The four researchers thus proceded to conduct their own experiment to add to that knowledge. (more…)