[SPPI Note: on sea level, see these paper:
Willis, J.K., Lyman, J.M., Johnson, G.C. and Gilson, J. 2009. In situ data biases and recent ocean heat content variability. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 26: 846-852
Authors Willis et al. (2009) write that “as the Earth warms due to the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the vast majority of the excess heat is expected to go toward warming the oceans (Levitus et al., 2005; Hansen et al., 2005),” but they note that “a large and apparently significant cooling in OHCA [ocean heat content anomaly] between 2003 and 2005 was reported by Lyman et al. (2006),” casting doubt on the theory in some people’s minds and doubts on the measurements in other people’s minds.
To help resolve this important issue, Willis et al. analyzed potential biases in expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data, as well as data obtained from the Argo array of profiling floats, which were used in making the OHCA calculations. (more…)