New Material Posted on the CO2 Science Web site 8 January – 14 January 2015

Source: CO2 Science

Corals Seeking Shelter from the Storm of Acidification & Bleaching (14 January 2015)

Can they find protection in the shade of beachfront mangroves? In a word, yes. This “previously undocumented refuge for corals provides evidence for adaptation of coastal organisms and ecosystem transition due to recent climate change,” and that is great news for these valuable marine organisms…

Biases Driving Biases in CMIP5 Models of Earth’s Major Monsoons (14 January 2015)
No wonder their projections are so often so far removed from reality…

The Consequences of Nighttime Warming for Winter Wheat Yields (13 January 2015)
A 1.1°C increase in nighttime temperature (1) “extended the duration of grain filling,” (2) “promoted the filling rates of the superior and inferior grains,” which (3) “resulted in a significant increase in the 1,000-grain weight by 6.3%,” that (4 and 5) “significantly increased wheat aboveground biomass and grain yield by 12.3 and 12.0%, respectively”…

Predicting Active-Layer Thicknesses of Permafrost-Affected Soil (13 January 2015)
Results of a new study indicate a “need for better process representations and representation of natural spatial heterogeneity due to local environment (topography, vegetation and soil properties) in Earth system models to generate a realistic variation of regional scale AL thickness, which could reduce the existing uncertainty in predicting permafrost carbon-climate feedbacks”…

Roman and Medieval Warm Periods vs. the Current Warm Period (12 January 2015)
In an eye-opening study published in the Chinese Science Bulletin, Yan et al. (2014) recount how they derived high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) histories of two 80-year time windows centered at approximately AD 990 and AD 50 within the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Roman Warm Period (RWP), respectively, by analyzing the Sr/Ca ratios and d18O values of Tradacna gigas (giant clam) shells collected from the northern South China Sea…

CMIP5 Models Misinterpreting the North Atlantic Oscillation (12 January 2015)
As bad as it currently is, the problem may well grow even greater if the planet ever begins to warm again…

Antioxidants — Summary (8 January 2015)
Environmental stresses induced by exposure to pollutants, drought, intense solar radiation and high air or water temperatures generate highly-reactive oxygenated compounds that damage both terrestrial and aquatic plants. Ameliorating these stresses typically involves the production of antioxidant enzymes that scavenge and detoxify the highly-reactive oxygenated compounds. Hence, when stresses are present, concentrations and/or activities of antioxidants in plants are generally observed to be high; and a good question to ask, therefore, is how atmospheric CO2 enrichment impacts this relationship and what the observed results imply…

Plant Growth Database (8 January 2015)
Our latest result of plant growth responses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment obtained from experiments described in the peer-reviewed scientific literature is for Barley (Perez-Lopez et al., 2014)…