July 2013 Science Reviews

Source:  http://www.nipccreport.org/issues/2013/jul.html  Boy Sitting on Large Book Reading

by Dr. Craig Idso

Cold Weather vs. Warm Weather: Which Kills More People? (2 Jul 2013)
In Portugal, as in many other countries where, in the words of Vasconcelos et al., low winter temperatures “are generally under-rated compared to high temperatures during summer periods,” cold weather is demonstrated to be “an important environmental hazard” that is much more deadly than the heat of summer… Read More

Hot-Water Climate-Change Refugia for Corals? (2 Jul 2013)
According to the authors of this study, nearshore reefs in the sheltered bays of Palau are valuable refuges to “buffer coral-reef ecosystems against climate change-induced disturbances”… Read More

The Near-Death Experience of South Andaman Island Corals (2 Jul 2013)
They apparently have what it takes to survive a horrible case of bleaching… Read More

PMIP2 Characterizations of the Mid-Holocene African Monsoon (3 Jul 2013)
Quite clearly, there is still a lot of work to be done by the climate modeling community before their models can perform acceptably, especially in the case of the West African Monsoon… Read More

Climate Models: Still Struggling to “Get It Right” (3 Jul 2013)
Another analysis of another set of models provides yet another list of unwanted deficiencies… Read More

Grassland Responses to Climate Change Induced Drought (3 Jul 2013)
In the words of the authors of this study, “our findings suggest that diverse grasslands throughout the globe have the potential to be resilient to drought in the face of climate change through the local expansion of drought-tolerant species,” which is good news for the future of grasslands worldwide… Read More

Impact of Continental Mass Change on Rate-of-Rise of Sea Level (9 Jul 2013)
New findings indicate the rate of sea level rise over the past two decades in on the order of 1.7 ± 0.8 mm/year, which is far less than that projected by climate alarmists… Read More

Shrub Proliferation Throughout Low Arctic Ecosystems (9 Jul 2013)
How rapid and extensive has the phenomenon been? According to the authors of this study, “vegetation in the upland tundra east of the Mackenzie Delta has changed dramatically in the last three decades with relative increases in tall shrub cover and alder density of 68.1 and 35%, respectively”… Read More

The Equatorial Cold Tongue Bias in CGCMs: Its Impact on ENSO (9 Jul 2013)
A new study reveals that “understanding the dynamical and thermodynamical mechanisms that drive the tropical atmosphere is required both to alleviate OAGCM errors and to describe the full extent of the atmosphere’s role in tropical variability, such as ENSO”… Read More

Life in a Cold and Dark Place: Can It Long Be Maintained in a Warming World? (9 Jul 2013)
A review of polar microalgae studies suggests that both Arctic and Antarctic phytoplankton are resilient to temperature increases up to 6°C greater than normal… Read More

Changes in Diurnal Temperature Range and Human Mortality (10 Jul 2013)
A decline in diurnal temperature range results in reduced human mortality in Guangzhou, China… Read More

Modeling Extreme Precipitation in the Tropics (10 Jul 2013)
How well do current state-of-the-art climate models perform in this regard? The four researchers who conducted this study state that “until the full range of deep convective processes in the tropics is more realistically represented in climate models, they cannot be used to predict the changes of extreme precipitation events in a changing (warming) climate”… Read More

The South Asian Monsoon: How Difficult It Has Been to Model (10 Jul 2013)
After many, many years of trying, the goal has yet to be reached… Read More

Surface Activity on the South-Central Greenland Ice Sheet (16 Jul 2013)
Do new data provide evidence for ice sheet slow death or ice sheet slow growth? An Ohio State University researcher reports that the most recent data show that thinning rates are slowing at several sites just east of the ice sheet divide, and that the elevation at the divide continues to increaseRead More

How Much Heat Can Amazon Tree Species Take and Still Survive? (16 Jul 2013)
The authors of this study conclude that “the remarkably old age of [certain] species suggests that Amazon forests passed through warmth similar to [that predicted by climate alarmists for] AD 2100 levels and that, in the absence of other major environmental changes, near-term high temperature-induced mass species extinction is unlikely [italics added]”… Read More

Plant Phenology in a Warming World: Keeping Up with the Heat? (16 Jul 2013)
In the face of a global warming that has been characterized in some circles (e.g., the United Nation’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) as the most dramatic of the past one to two millennia, in the words of the authors of this paper, “there is no indication that the 47 spring flowering plants we studied are delayed in their flowering by insufficient photoperiod or winter chilling requirements,” adding that “these plants continue to flower earlier apparently in direct response to increasingly warmer mean spring temperatures”… Read More

Sea Anemones and Microbes in a CO2-Vent-Induced pH Gradient (16 Jul 2013)
Reporting on how the two life-forms respond in one of the first-of-its-type in situ studies, Meron et al. state that “it appears that elevated CO2 does not have a negative influence on A. viridis that live naturally in the [very CO2-enriched] site.” And they say that “this suggests that natural long-term exposure and dynamic diverse microbial communities may contribute to the acclimation process of the host in a changing pH environment”… Read More

Atmospheric CO2 and Global Temperature: Which Leads Which When Change Occurs? (17 Jul 2013)
A new study of an old subject provides a compelling modern data-based answer. It would appear that the climate-alarmist case for changes in Earth’s atmospheric CO2 concentration causing changes in global air temperature still remains as weak as ever, as just the opposite appears to be the case in situations where there is absolutely no question about the timing of the two phenomena in terms of their temporal relationship to each other… Read More

Heat-Induced Stress in Corals is Exacerbated by Eutrophication (17 Jul 2013)
Reducing coastal eutrophication may help enable corals to survive greater heat stress… Read More

Climatic Implications of United Kingdom Streamflow Histories (17 Jul 2013)
Based on their analysis, the two researchers of this report indicate that some of their findings “resonate” with observed rainfall changes and potential future climate change. However, they say that “the lack of any obvious tendency towards decreasing river flows (for summer and for low flows especially) is in apparent contrast to expectations for the relatively near future under climate change scenarios”… Read More

Tropical Precipitation Extremes: How Well Are They Modeled? (23 Jul 2013)
Not very. In fact, the authors of the present study conclude that “until the full range of deep convective processes in the tropics is more realistically represented in climate models, they cannot be used to predict the changes of extreme precipitation events in a changing (warming) climate”… Read More

Corals Moving Northward in the Western Mediterranean Seas (23 Jul 2013)
If one species of coral can do it, it is likely that many species of coral can do so… Read More

The Long-Term Fate of Organic Carbon in Semiarid Grassland Soil (23 Jul 2013)
How does it impact the rate-of-rise of the atmosphere’s CO2 concentration? When all was said and done – and the several pluses and minuses accounted for – Zhou et al. concluded that “given that the absolute increase of [soil organic carbon] SOC in the recalcitrant SOC pool was much greater than the decrease in labile SOC, and that the mean residence time of recalcitrant SOC is much greater, our results suggest that soil C storage at 10-20 cm depth may increase with increasing temperature in this semiarid grassland,” which thus represents a net negative feedback on predicted global warming… Read More

Southern Ocean Bottom Water Formation in CMIP5 Models (23 Jul 2013)
Due to the fact that the authors of this study indicate that “bottom water formation processes are poorly represented in ocean models and are a key challenge for improving climate predictions,” we should be extremely cautious in accepting what they currently predict about future climate change… Read More

Climate Change Conversations: Establishment Scientists Getting It Wrong (24 Jul 2013)
In contrast to the contention of Shakhashiri and Bell that people should support officials who promote policies and practices aimed at decreasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions, most rational men and women should seek to determine – as best they can, based upon real-world observations rather than theoretical models – which of the two opposing scientific factions seems to them to be the more likely to have the more correct view of the matter… Read More

Synergies Among Stressors: Reducing One to Reduce the Effect of the Other (24 Jul 2013)
When there is little that can be done about a global stressor, reducing a local stressor can often reduce the impact of the global stressor as well… Read More

Holocene Temperatures at the Western Greenland Ice Sheet Margin (24 Jul 2013)
New data reveal, once again, that there is nothing unusual, unnatural or unprecedented about current temperatures along the western Greenland Ice Sheet margin – or anywhere else on the planet, for that matter – for temperatures there currently fall well within the extreme bounds experienced over the course of the Holocene. And it should also be realized that starting from the coldest point of the entire Holocene (the depths of the Little Ice Age), one could well expect that once started, warming (for whatever reason) could well be anticipated to be substantial… Read More

Northern Hemisphere Land Snow Cover: Simulations vs. Reality (30 Jul 2013)
In commenting on their findings, Brutel-Vuilmet et al. write that “in many respects, the simulated snow covers in the coupled models used in CMIP3 as analyzed by Roesch (2006) and CMIP5 have similar qualities and deficiencies,” leaving pause to wonder why so little progress has been made between the current generation of models and the prior one… Read More

Jellyfish Blooms: Rising or Falling? … or Doing a Bit of Both? (30 Jul 2013)
A lot of researchers with a lot of data provide the best answer to date, finding that the results of their study do not support the view that the global abundance of jellyfish is increasing as a result of “the deterioration of the world’s oceans.” What they do imply is the continuance of normal “recurrent phases of rise and fall in jellyfish populations that society should be prepared to face”… Read More

Soybean Seed Yield as Impacted by Velvet Leaf Weed Infestations (30 Jul 2013)
How is the relationship altered by atmospheric CO2 enrichment? In the concluding words of Ziska, “the current study suggests that greater resilience of soybean yield to [velvet leaf weed] limitations may be possible with a future, higher CO2 concentration.” In fact, if Ziska’s results are anywhere near representative of reality – and there is no reason to believe otherwise – the “greater resilience” of which he writes is essentially insuredRead More

Permafrost Thermal Dynamics in CMIP5 Earth System Models (30 Jul 2013)
How well are these heat-related phenomena portrayed by the mathematical constructs that have been designed to describe them? Among other things, “the models show a wide range of behaviors under the current climate, with many failing to agree with fundamental aspects of the observed soil thermal regime at high latitudes”… Read More

Rice Cultivar Responses to Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment (31 Jul 2013)
The fruits of this study’s labors clearly indicate the extreme importance of concentrating rice breeding efforts on cultivars that have strong positive responses to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, because without the help of this highly effective aerial fertilizer, we have little hope of being able to meet the 70% increase in crop yields that will be needed to feed the people of the world a mere 37 years from now. And for the same reason, breeders of all of the other major food crops of humanity should be pursuing the same course of action as well… Read More

Ocean Acidification: Separating the Winners from the Losers (31 Jul 2013)
In the words of the authors of this study, is likely that “ocean acidification will lead to selection against susceptible phenotypes as well as to rapid fixation of alleles that allow reproduction under more acidic conditions,” which phenomena “may ameliorate the biotic effects of climate change if taxa have sufficient extant genetic variation upon which selection can act”… Read More

Crustose Coralline Algae in a CO2-Enriched Ocean (31 Jul 2013)
The prevailing theoriy is that Mg-calcite corals with higher Mg content will undergo greatest dissolution under ocean acidification, yet the authors of this experiment “were surprised to find a trend in the opposite direction”… Read More