January 2014 Archive of Scientific Literature Reviews

Source: Climate Change Reconsideredcoral reef2

Does Thawing of Permafrost Lead to Further Global Warming? (1 Jan 2014)

According to the authors of this study it is “questionable whether a thawing of permafrost really would lead to an accelerated and increased carbon loss in these soils”… Read More

Effects of Ocean Acidification on Egg & Larval Stages of Baltic Cod (1 Jan 2014)
The data presented in this study showed that “the eggs and early larval stages of Baltic cod seem to be robust to even higher levels of OA (3,200 µatm), indicating an adaptational response to CO2“… Read More

Effects of Elevated pCO2 on a Tidal Pool Coralline Alga (1 Jan 2014)
New observations portend “a greater resilience” of such organisms to the projected “highly variable pH/pCO2 environments of future ocean acidification”… Read More

Predicting Precipitation Extremes via CMIP5 Climate Models (7 Jan 2014)
After decades of climate model constructing and testing there are still gross inadequacies and misrepresentations in even the world’s best climate models that are so serious as to render their projections of future precipitation of less-than-adequate value… Read More

Corals Forced to Live in a CO2-Enriched and Warmer Environment (7 Jan 2014)
The authors of this study conclude that “some corals could be more resistant to combined ocean acidification and warming expected by the end of this century than previously thought,” such that “the immediate effects of rising seawater temperature and ocean acidification may be tolerable for some species”… Read More

Echinoid Egg Fertilization in Warmed and Acidified Seawater (7 Jan 2014)
The impact of increased temperature (2-4°C above ambient) and decreased pH (0.2-0.4 pH units below ambient) on fertilization in the Antarctic echinoidSterechinus neumayeri was such that decreased pH did not affect fertilization but warming enhanced it… Read More

Near-Death Experiences of Brazilian Corals (8 Jan 2014)
The corals of Caramuanas reef displayed certain resilience to the temperature perturbations caused by the 2010 ENSO event, suggesting an adaptive capacity or resistance to coral bleaching… Read More

The Flip Side of Coral Bleaching (8 Jan 2014)
Coral bleaching is not all gloom and doom, it can have benefits. So say the authors of this study who wrote that “bleaching is a prime regulator for the settlement of new recruitment of scleractinian corals which leads to diversified reef area,” while further noting that “the adaptive features of bleaching can be seen as a mechanism that enables the exchange of symbionts in a better fit of the holobiont to a changed environment”… Read More

Northeast Monsoon Rainfall Over South Peninsular India (8 Jan 2014)monsoon rainfall
How well is it predicted by state-of-the-art general circulation models? In the words of the scientists who conducted this study, “the models are not able to capture the inter-annual variability present in northeast monsoon rainfall.” And they say that this failure arises “because of deviations of these patterns from those of their observed counterparts, which suggests that the models tend to either overestimate or underestimate the observations”… Read More

Australian Cane Toads: Expanding Their Ranges in Response to Climate Changes (8 Jan 2014)
According to the authors of this report, studies on established animal populations “may massively underestimate dispersal rates at the leading edge of an expanding population,” which underestimation, in turn, leads to the under-prediction of the rates at which native taxa can expand into newly available habitat under climate change… Read More

Antarctic Sea Ice Trends: Modelled vs. Measured (14 Jan 2014)
It is difficult for a climate model to be more wrong than when it hind-casts just the opposite of what has been observed to be happening over the past three and a half decades in the real world, which is what most of the CMIP5 models apparently do…. Read More

Seahorses in a Future Warmer World (14 Jan 2014)
Adult seahorses appear to show great resilience to heat stress and are “not expected to go through any physiological impairment and behavioral change with the projected near-future warming,” but juveniles in their early life stages “display greater thermal sensitivity and may face greater metabolic challenges,” the outcome of which remains unknown… Read More

A 16-Year History of Coral Bleaching in Moorea, French Polynesia (14 Jan 2014)
Sustained declines in bleaching incidence among highly susceptible corals over this sixteen year period “may be indicative of acclimation or adaptation” among four key genera of reef-building corals in Moorea, French Polynesia… Read More

Simulating California (USA) Extreme Heat Conditions (15 Jan 2014)
How well is it done by today’s best climate models? It would appear that predicting what needs to be known by Central Valley California farmers and others in the region is still pretty much of a hit-and-miss undertaking… Read More

The Response of Juvenile King Scallops to Ocean Acidification (15 Jan 2014)
Will the highly-prized shellfish soon be little more than a fond memory of seafood aficionados? Probably not, as none of the exposure levels of pCO2used in this study were found to have significant effects on the bivalve… Read More

Westerly Biases Over the Equatorial Atlantic (15 Jan 2014)
The problem has been so stubborn and persistent up to the new generation of CMIP5 models… Read Moresea-horses-group

Cold-Water Corals of Chile (15 Jan 2014)
How are they affected by ocean acidification? Apparently, very little. The authors of this study report they actually thrive close to the aragonite saturation horizon and even below it, where they found “flourishing coral banks”… Read More

Two Decades of Global Dryland Vegetation Change (21 Jan 2014)
In spite of the postulated growing negative impacts of man and climate alike, the greening of the earth continues – and in places where it’s toughest of all to be green (arid lands) – with the proposed impetus for the phenomenon being the likely-enabling role of anthropogenic-induced atmospheric CO2enrichment… Read More

The Top Ten Problems of the New-and-Improved ECHAM6 Model (21 Jan 2014)
Once again, it appears that state-of-the-art climate models still have a long way to go in simulating many important aspects of Earth’s climate… Read More

Modelling Thermal Characteristics of the Cold Point-Tropopause (21 Jan 2014)
How well do CMIP5 models do in this regard? According to the authors of this study, “the fine-scale processes that govern stratospheric water vapor and the Cold Point-Tropopause temperature are unlikely to be well represented,” and “the coarse vertical resolution of the models and their non-negligible biases in the climatology, seasonal cycle and variability of the tropical tropopause layer limit their accuracy in the assessment of past, present and future climates”… Read More

Coralline Algae in a High-CO2 World: How Do They Cope? (22 Jan 2014)
The results of this study “indicate that seawater chemistry can drive phenotypic plasticity in coralline algae,” and that “the ability to change the energy allocation between cell growth and structural support is a clear adaptive response of the organism,” which they say “is likely to increase its ability to survive in a high CO2 world”… Read More

The Biodiversity Insurance Hypothesis in a Time of Climate Change (22 Jan 2014)
It’s just what the world needs, and has, in the case of the phenology of many interacting species… Read More

Simulating the Tibetan Plateau Summer Monsoon (22 Jan 2014)
“Extensive integrations under phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) historical scenarios from 15 CGCMs and Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) runs from eight atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs)” were used to evaluate the models’ performance, which performance has left much to be desired… Read More

The “Best Available Tools” for Predicting Climate Change (22 Jan 2014)
As with many other regions, they don’t perform very well for the Congo and Upper Blue Nile basins of Africa… Read More

Long-Term Effects of Elevated CO2 on Plant-Herbivore Interactions (28 Jan 2014)
In the eternal war between earth’s plants and the herbivorous insects that feed upon them, the ongoing increase in the atmosphere’s CO2 concentration is proving to be a powerful secret weapon, which is helping the planet’s vegetation to sustain the impressive worldwide greening of the earth that continues apace, growing ever stronger year by year… Read More

Simulating the Trigger of the Onset of the Indian Summer Monsoon (28 Jan 2014)
How well are the CMIP5 models performing in this regard? The authors of this study conclude “many models still face difficulties”… Read More

The World’s Longest-Running Tropical Sponge Study (28 Jan 2014)
It reveals incredible resilience of these simplest of multi-cellular animals to “large-scale thermal stress events,” suggesting that “sponges might be less affected by projected increases in sea surface temperature compared to other major groups of reef organisms”… Read More

Modeling Southern Hemisphere Mid-latitude Precipitation Trends (29 Jan 2014)
Once again, the CMIP5 models are found to perform poorly in simulating another important aspect of climate… Read More

Will Second Generation Biofuels Lead to Bioinvasions? (29 Jan 2014)
They very well could, as the authors of this study write “the development of a large-scale biofuel industry on the continent could lead to the widespread introduction, establishment, and spread of invasive plant species if invasive risks are not properly considered as part of biofuel policy”… Read More

Modeling Volcanic Aeorsol Impacts on Atmospheric Water Vapor (29 Jan 2014)
How well do the CMIP3 and CMIP5 models perform in this regard? In spite of “the remarkable improvements of GCMs over the past years, it is still a challenge to simulate volcanic impacts for all GCMs”… Read Morevolcano

Two Decades of Overestimated Global Warming (29 Jan 2014)
The global mean surface temperature over the past 20 years rose at a rate that was “significantly slower than that simulated by the climate models participating in Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5)”… Read More