Source: SPPIidso3

Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Crustaceans

As the air?s CO2 content rises in response to ever-increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and as more and more carbon dioxide therefore dissolves in the surface waters of the world?s oceans, theoretical reasoning suggests the pH values of the planet?s oceanic waters should be gradually dropping. The IPCC and others postulate that this chain of events, commonly referred to as ocean acidification, will cause great harm — and possibly death — to marine life in the decades and centuries to come. However, as ever more pertinent evidence accumulates, a much more optimistic viewpoint is emerging. Such optimism is the focus of this summary examining the effects of ocean acidification on crustaceans.

Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Bivalves

As the air’s CO2 content rises in response to ever-increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and as more and more carbon dioxide therefore dissolves in the surface waters of the world’s oceans, theoretical reasoning suggests the pH values of the planet’s oceanic waters should be gradually dropping. The IPCC and others postulate that this chain of events, commonly referred to as ocean acidification, will cause great harm — and possibly death — to marine life in the decades and centuries to come. However, as ever more pertinent evidence accumulates, a much more optimistic viewpoint is emerging. Such optimism is the focus of this summary examining the effects of ocean acidification on bivalves.

Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Bacteria

Cyanobacteria-also known as blue-green algae, blue-green bacteria or Cyanophyta (the smallest of which, less than two micrometers in diameter, are typically referred to as picocyanobacteria)- obtain their energy through the process of photosynthesis and are thus important primary producers in many areas of the world?s oceans, as well as significant components of the marine nitrogen cycle. This summary briefly reviews the results of studies that indicate how they may be affected by ocean acidification in a CO2-enriched world of the future, several of which findings challenge alarming negative projections of the IPCC.

Observed Climate Change and the Negligible Global Effect of Greenhouse-gas Emission Limits in the State of Utah

In this report, we review the long-term climate history of Utah and find little in the way of evidence that the greenhouse gas build-up in the atmosphere has much altered Utah?s climate. While statewide average temperatures have generally appeared to have risen in Utah over the past 100 years, they have fallen during the past 15 years. Further, there is evidence that the state?s temperature record contains non-climatic influences?such as land use changes, instrument changes, and improper instrument siting?which together add a warming bias to the state?s long-term temperature history, making it seem like the temperature has been increasing more than it actually has been.

Experimental Artifacts of Free-Air-C02-Enrichment (FACE) Studies

In a provocative paper they entitled “Food for Thought: Lower-Than-Expected Crop Yield Stimulation with Rising CO2 Concentrations,” Long et al. (2006)1 suggested that future increases in crop production caused by the fertilization effect of the atmosphere’s rising CO2 concentration may be only half as large as what had long been believed would be the case, due to confounding influences they claimed were inherent in all experimental assessments of the growth-promoting effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment except those employing Free-Air CO2- Enrichment or FACE technology. Quite to the contrary, however, there is a strong possibility that just the opposite could well be true, i.e., that future increases in crop production caused by the aerial fertilization effect of the atmosphere’s rising CO2 concentration may well be twice as large as what FACE experiments suggest.